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Setting the Standard: Improving Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainable Supply Chains

Setting the Standard: Improving Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainable Supply Chains


A focus group organized by EcoAgriculture Partners and Rainforest Alliance explored the goals, evaluation methods, and tools currently used or in development within the many standards and organizations working on agricultural sustainability.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


16. Japan

Over the past decade, Japan has reduced its support to agriculture, but more recently the change in support levels has been moderate. Support to producers (PSE) remains high as a share on gross farm receipts (41% in 2017-19) and is almost 2.4 times above the OECD average. The total support estimate to agriculture (TSE) represented 0.9% of Japan’s GDP in 2017-19, most of which went to direct support to producers (PSE).

Market price support (MPS) remains to be the main element of the PSE, accounting for about 80% in 2017-19. It is largely sustained by border measures, in particular for rice, pork and milk. Payments to producers decreased between 2018 and 2019. Budgetary support to producers is mostly delivered as payments based on area and income.

The share of expenditures for general services provided to agriculture (GSSE) relative to TSE is 20%, which is higher than the OECD average but has decreased since the 1990s. The majority of the GSSE financed the development and maintenance of agricultural infrastructure, representing more than four-fifths of the GSSE in 2017-19.


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